PROCESS OF MAKING PCB

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One important concept in electronics is printed circuit boards or PCB. This we think is important to explain whether the PCB is. This article will explain about PCB Assembly from start to finish.

The Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is a copper board that serves to connect between components in electronic circuits. Before any PCB component is connected using a cable so it looks very unkempt.

Material and PCB Layers

PCB has various types of layers such as single-sided (single layer), double-sided (double layer). Double layer means there are two layers of copper in one PCB. Double layer PCB allows us to install more components in a small space. The upper and lower layers are connected through a hole called the plated-through hole.

Generally, there are two types of material in PCB namely FR4 and FR2. FR2 (Flame Resistant 2) is phenolic cotton paper, phenol formaldehyde, and has lower electrical properties than FR4. Usually used by consumers who want an affordable price. FR4 (Flame Resistant 4) is a fiberglass webbing coated with epoxy resin. It’s low water absorption, good insulation properties, and resistant to temperature 130 Celsius. Usually used by the electronics industry. The FR4 PCB layer has a thicker copper layer compared to FR2. So, FR4 copper is stronger and doesn’t peel easily. FR4 also looks shinier than FR2. So, in terms of aesthetic, FR4 is superior. Of course, FR4 is more expensive than FR2, but the difference is just little.

Solder mask

The above copper layer is called the solder mask layer. This layer serves to protect the copper layer from accidental contact with solder or other metal. This layer is very easy for users to do the soldering process in the right place.

In the above example, solder mask covers all PCB parts except the sections that should be soldered. Solder mask can use many colors but usually use green.

Lettering/silkscreen

Lettering is used to add text or number on PCB. Lettering can be made on top of a solder mask layer or above a base with no copper. Lettering can use a variety of colors. Usually, use white color.

Design process

Each PCB has different functions depending on the specification of the product made. So, the PCB has different designs as well. We can design PCB manually or with software help. Also, you can find many PCB Assembly services on the internet. The design process with the software usually begins by making a schematic of a collection of components and then connect it. After that, just make the layout of the PCB path. Once the PCB path pattern is made, then, the pattern is printed with a 1:1 ratio to get the master sheet to be used for the next process. In the design process, we must know what components are used because of these components will determine the distance of the hole, the size of the hole, the layout of components, etc. So, it’s not possible to make a PCB only with a capital of the finished image of PCB images. There is much free software can be obtained from the internet to facilitate the design process.

Manufacturing Process

Here are 4 PCB Manufacturing you should know:

1. Lighting

Plain PCB is irradiated with UV light with film according to PCB design. Parts of PCBs exposed to UV light will not peel during the Etching process.

2. Etching

The etching process is the process of removal of PCB parts that are not exposed to UV light. When all parts that are not exposed to UV light are peeled off, then the remaining PCB part will form the paths according to the PCB design.

3. Drill

Drilling at points where the component’s legs will be placed. Drill hole diameter adjusted to the component used according to PCB design.

4. Silvering

Silvering is the delivery of a silver layer on a PCB copper layer. This process is done to facilitate soldering and prevention of corrosion in the copper layer so that PCB can still be soldered even if it has been stored for a long time.